In a previous article, I wrote about the nature of decentralization versus centralization in Bitcoin mining and how to conceptualize that in a mostly qualitative sense. The article broke down the entire mining stack, from pool coordination all the way down to energy production to give a sense of the relationship between different layers of the mining stack and the potential to maximize decentralization, making the point that the further down the stack you go toward energy production, the more difficult and capital intensive it becomes to bring a meaningful level of decentralization to that layer.

In this article, I intend to go deeper into the topic of mining pools and miner coordination to facilitate independently-owned mining operations cooperating in an effort to mine blocks to append to the blockchain.


Mining has come a long way since the days when you could simply click a button and reliably mine blocks all by yourself on a laptop CPU. Back then, it was effectively an amateur hobbyist endeavor that required no real capital investment or expertise, but nowadays it is a multi-billion dollar professional market with massive capital investment required at scale. It is a whole different ball game.

One of the natural consequences of this shift in the nature of the mining industry was the creation of mining pools very early on. When mining was effectively leaving a laptop running in the corner, the variance and unpredictability of when you would find a block was not really that big of a deal — eventually, you would and the power cost of keeping a laptop running was not really of economic importance.

Once things shifted to GPUs and ASICs, there was a material investment cost up front and a much more significant electricity cost to keep them operating. That unpredictability in when you would find a block became a much bigger issue to miners attempting to make a return on their capital investments and operate profitably. This is where mining pools come into the picture.

They allow miners to cooperate on finding a valid block header working on the same block together, sending the coinbase reward to the mining pool, which then distributes it proportionally among all of the participating miners relative to how much work they have done in helping to find the block. This is proven by turning in “shares” to the mining pool; blocks that do not meet the network difficulty target but are high enough to prove that a miner is not lying and is actually running hardware and trying to find a valid block.


Centralized mining pools come with big implications for individual miners. They are a point of centralization in the process of selecting (or, more importantly, excluding) transactions for inclusion in a block. This gives each mining pool operator total control over the transactions that they choose to process on the blockchain, with no ability for the actual owners of the mining hardware to exert a say on that except by leaving the pool if they disagree with the criteria that the operator chooses to set.

They also custody individual miners’ bitcoin until those miners choose to withdraw them from the pool, leaving the pool operator acting as a custodian and central point that could defraud miners using the pool, or be pressured by governments to seize individual miners funds or apply KYC requirements to them.

So, what solutions exist to address this problem?


P2Pool is the original decentralized mining pool protocol. It is a peer-to-peer protocol in which miners coordinate among themselves to split up the mining rewards as they work together to find a valid block that meets the difficulty target. This coordination is accomplished using what the protocol design refers to as a “sharechain.”

Miners in the P2Pool take blocks that do not meet the difficulty target of the network, and effectively mine their own blockchain composed of all of the copies of the single block that the pool is working on. When they meet the smaller difficulty target where the block would be turned into a pool to prove they are mining in a centralized model, they broadcast that block to the rest of the miners. P2Pool’s “share difficulty” was targeted so that miners would find a share roughly once every thirty seconds.

I’m sure readers are wondering how the payout to individual miners works. The coinbase transaction is structured so that an output is created for each individual miner in the P2Pool, splitting up funds directly from the coinbase transaction. Miners in the P2Pool verify that all of the payouts to themselves and everyone participating in the pool is correct, and that each miner who has contributed a share to the sharechain is correctly paid out for their work in each new share added. If some participating miner is not correctly structuring payouts to everyone in their latest share, then all of the other miners in the P2Pool stop including them in their own payouts and effectively “evict” that miner from the pool for not behaving fairly.

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